Substitutions

​​Mascarpone ​​Mascarpone (mahs-kar’-pohn) – an Italian cheese from the Lombardy region, made by curdling milk cream with citric acid or acetic acid

Substitutes:
8 oz mascarpone ≈ 6 oz cream cheese blended with 1/4 c heavy cream and 5 Tbsp sour cream

more about mascarpone

how to make Homemade Mascarpone Cheese


Pectin Pectin (pehk’-tin) – setting agent for jams and jellies; available in powdered or liquid form

Substitutes:
1 box powdered pectin ≈ 1 packet liquid pectin

Whisk powdered pectin into the sugar before you combine it with the fruit. It must be cooked with the fruit & sugar to avoid clumping.

More about Pectin

more about Substituting Pectin


Kale Kale (Kayl) – a plant in the mustard family, having dark green, spreading, usually crinkled leaves that are eaten as a vegetable

Substitutes:
Swiss Chard

Beet Greens

Spinach – can substitute equal amounts, but spinach will cook much faster

more about Kale


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Zuppa Toscana

based on Olive Garden’s
adapted from several recipe website posts,
my version has less meat and more veggies than most

pot of Zuppa Toscana
½ pound spicy Italian sausage – crumbled
¼ pound bacon – chopped
4 cups water
2 cans (14 oz) chicken broth
1 large bunch kale
4 large russet potatoes – cut in ½” cubes
2-4 garlic cloves – minced (I usually use 4)
1 medium onion – peeled, chopped (about 1 cup)
1 cup half & half (I use non-fat)
salt and pepper – to taste (I don’t usually add any – the spicy sausage adds enough)

Directions

  1. In a pot over medium-high heat, brown sausage, breaking into small pieces; drain, set aside.
  2. Brown bacon; drain, set aside.
  3. Strip kale leaves from stems. Slice stems into ¼” pieces (like celery). Chop leaves coarsely.
  4. Add water, broth, kale stems, potatoes, garlic, and onion to pot; simmer over medium heat until potatoes are tender.
  5. Add sausage and chopped kale leaves; simmer for 10 minutes.
  6. Add half & half; season with salt and pepper if desired; heat through.
  7.  Sprinkle with bacon.
  • You can discard the kale stems if you prefer, but with a little extra cooking they taste great & I hate to waste them.
  • You can substitute Swiss chard, beet greens or spinach for the kale. Spinach will only need a few minutes cooking.

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